Mexico - Emigration

The General Population Act (LGP) in its Article 76 indicates that the Ministry of the Interior (SEGOB) must investigate the causes that may cause the emigration of nationals, and dictate the measures to regulate it, as well as, in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE, for its initials in Spanish), dictate measures addressing the protection of Mexican emigrants. The SEGOB must also promote in coordination with competent dependencies, the execution of agreements with governments of other countries, so that emigration is carried out through legal, safe, and regulated channels, by means of temporary worker programs or other migration methods.

Article 80 bis of the same law, in its May 2011 reform, sets out that the Federal Government, in coordination with Federal and Municipal Entity Governments must promote development and foster the connection of Mexicans to the national territory, and create programs to address the impacts of emigration on communities of origin, especially related to the problems of family disintegration and assistance to persons in vulnerable situations.

With respect to repatriated Mexicans, defined as those that return to live in the country, SEGOB is authorised by Articles 83 and 84 of the LGP, to coordinate actions for their assistance and reintegration, making special emphasis to assist them regarding employment and housing options available in the place of the national territory in which they express their intention to reside. Additionally, in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, it may enact inter-institutional agreements with other countries and international organisations for repatriation to be safe, dignified, and regulated. Moreover, the SEGOB will monitor that in the reception of Mexicans returned by foreign governments, their rights are respected and in compliance with applicable international agreements, and will promote inter-institutional actions to offer them an adequate reception, exerting special emphasis on their health status, communication with their family members, and supporting them in their transfer to their place of residence in Mexico.

The SRE, through its consular network and in coordination with the Ministry of the Interior and the National System for the Comprehensive Development of the Family (Sistema Nacional DIF, for its initials in Spanish) and state-level DIF’s, carries out actions to support repatriated minor migrants, in order to guarantee the rights conferred upon them by the laws (Article 217 of the LGP Regulation).

Protection of Mexicans abroad is performed through the Mexican consular network (Article 23 of SRE’s internal Regulation), integrated by 72 consular sections, 32 consul generals, 34 career consuls, and 152 honourary consuls. In the United States there are 49 consular offices, the world’s largest consular network in one single country. In addition, in 2003, the Institute of Mexicans Abroad (Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior - IME) was created as a SRE decentralised administrative agency, with the goal to promote strategies, integrate programs, receive proposals and recommendations, designed to elevate the quality of life in Mexican communities abroad.