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Introduction

This part of the publication consists of summary notes and statistical tables on each participating country of the Continuous Reporting System on International Migration in the Americas (known as SICREMI, its Spanish acronym). For countries new to the publication (this year, Jamaica), the country note contains a brief history of international migration in the country since the country acquired its independence, as well as a summary of the regulatory framework governing entry and stay in the country, the acquisition of nationality and measures regarding asylum and the recognition of refugee status as well as for the regularization of unauthorized immigrants. For other countries, readers are referred to the previous edition (2012) of this publication for similar information. In this issue, the country note for countries which were covered in the previous edition contains an overview of developments in international migration movements and policies since 2010. 

The note for each country is based on a report submitted to the Organization of American States by the SICREMI national correspondent for the country.

The country note table contains an overview of statistics related to international migration for the country, including total inflows of immigrants, both permanent and temporary; flows by category of entry, when available; outflows to OECD countries and to countries of the Americas; the number of asylum seekers and refugees; components of population growth; the size of the immigrant population; GDP growth and GDP per capita; and labor force characteristics of the emigrant population, both men and women.

Sources for the statistics presented in the tables are as follows:

  • Migration inflows – the national correspondents of the SICREMI network; the data are generally from permit or visa statistics.
  • Migration outflows to OECD countries and to countries of the Americas – the OECD International Migration Database and national correspondents of the SICREMI network, respectively. The outflows from origin countries are derived from the inflows of destination countries.
  • Asylum seekers and refugees – UNHCR. The asylum seeker statistics are new requests and exclude repeat, reopened and appeal applications.  The refugee statistics exclude “persons in refugee-like situations”.
  • Components of population growth – United Nations World Population Prospects: the 2012 Revision.
  • The foreign-born population – Trends in International Migration Stock: the 2013 Revision, except for the United States, where Census Bureau statistics were used. 
  • GDP growth and GDP/capita –World Bank statistics. The GDP growth figures are based on GDP in 2010 constant dollars, except for Canada and the United States, where the GDP figures are based on 2012 constant dollars. GDP per capita figures are in 2011 international constant dollars at PPPs.
  • Labor force outcomes in OECD countries – the European Labor Force Survey for European countries, the American Community Survey for the United States.

More detailed information on statistical sources and on the definitions of the statistics presented can be found in the Statistical Annex (Part III) of this publication.

Multi-year statistics are based on averages of the underlying annual data for the period shown. The abbreviation “na” means “not available”, nr “not reliable”.

The term “nationality” as used in the country note refers to legal, administrative or passport nationality. It defines the link between a person and a particular legal system. This link of an individual with a State generates rights and reciprocal duties and depends on national legislation. Variants can be summarized in three legal principles:

 (a) Ius sanguinis: the right of blood, where nationality is transmitted from the parents to their children, even when they are born abroad;

(b) Ius soli: the right of soil, where the nationality of a country is obtained on the basis of birth on the territory of the country, regardless of the nationality of the parents;

(c) Ius domicili: the right of domicile, where nationality is acquired on the basis of residence after a certain period of time or on the basis of other residence-related ties to the country of nationality (property, work, etc.).

For the purpose of this report, the terms “citizenship” and “nationality” are used interchangeably.