In the year 2013, Brazil received almost 128,000 permanent and temporary immigrants, the majority being of a temporary character (more than 80% of the total).
Brazil has one of the lowest permanent immigration rates in the Americas and, as well, with Colombia, Cuba and Honduras, one of the smallest immigrant populations relative to its total population size.
The United States continues to be the main destination country for emigrating Brazilians (40%), followed by Portugal, Bolivia and Canada. Brazilian emigration to Bolivia has increased almost five-fold between 2009 and 2012.
The insertion of Brazilian emigrants into the labor market in Europe and the United States took a turn for the worse from 2010 to 2013, especially for women. While the participation rate remained the same for both genders, unemployment increased by almost 3 percentage points for women but by around 1 point for men. From the onset of the financial crisis in the 2007-2008 period, to the 2012-2013 period, women’s unemployment rose from 8.5% to almost 19%, while that for men increased from 5.7% to 11.4%.
In 2013, Brazil received 1.6 billion dollars in remittances, representing less than one tenth of one percent of Gross Domestic Product. In comparison with the year 2012, remittances decreased some 18.4%. The downward trend persists since 2010.
Brazil received nearly 5,000 asylum requests in 2013, the most significant countries of origin being Bangladesh, Senegal and Lebanon. Lebanon showed an increase of 320% relative to 2012. Today there are 5,130 refugees in Brazil, mainly of Colombian and Angolan origin, followed by Syria, Liberia, Iraq and Palestine.
The Brazilian government is undertaking a reform of its immigration Law, based on the principles established in the Constitution of 1988, and on international treaties on human rights. Recently a draft bill on Immigration and the Promotion of the Rights of Immigrants was prepared by a group of experts led by the Ministry of Justice and sent to the National Congress for consideration. The bill provides for regularization procedures, facilitates family reunion and allows regular entry for those who seek employment. It also establishes a specialized national institution in charge of all aspects of immigration.
In 2012, and in preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, as well as the 2016 Olympic and Paralympics Games, the National Immigration Council published normative Resolution No. 98, to grant temporary work visas to foreigners for work in the country during the preparation, organization, planning and execution of the events.
Also, in 2012, through normative Resolution No. 97 of the National Immigration Council, Brazil regularized 5,651 Haitian nationals on a humanitarian basis.
Recently, the Brazilian State has adopted provisions for extending the “Agreement on Residence for Nationals of States Party to Mercosur, Bolivia and Chile” to Peruvian and Colombian nationals residing in Brazil.
In 2013, the government signed an Agreement with Uruguay on Permanent Residence in the context of the Free Circulation of Persons. The objective is to facilitate the movement of citizens of both countries between their respective territories to ensure effective binational integration. Permanent residence or a visa may be obtained by presenting a valid passport, current identity document or a special border document issued by the consulate of the country of origin, as well as a certificate or an affidavit attesting to the absence of a criminal record. Those requesting permanent residence will not be required to show a prior period of temporary residence. Uruguayan citizens who have obtained a permanent residence visa in Brazil or vice versa, based on this agreement, have the right to freely enter, exit, circulate and remain in the arrival country’s territory, through prior fulfilment of requirements – a valid passport and no criminal record - set in the agreement.
Recent trends in migrant’s flows and stocks and in labor market outcomes of emigrants
|Migration inflows (foreign nationals)||Persons||Per 1000 inhabitants||Percent change|
|Permanent migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type||Persons||% distribution|
|Temporary migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type||Persons||% distribution|
|Migration outflows (nationals)||Persons||% of total||% change|
|From unstandardised destination country data||2009||2010||2011||2012||2012||2012/2009|
|Asylum seekers and refugees||Per million inhabitants||Number of persons|
|Inflows of asylum seekers||5.5683622765227||25.287514212675||5.6580213660679||23.577333867201||15.022807930616||4724|
|Refugees resident in the country||22.319553301573||22.733373720913||23.603614044033||25.933070866633||23.647402983288||5196|
|Components of population growth||Per 1000 inhabitants|
|Foreign-born population||Percentage of the total population||Persons||% change|
|Remittances||Millions of dollars||% of GDP||% change|
|Macroeconomic indicators||Annual growth in %||Average annual growth||Level|
|GDP/per capita ((PPP ) in constant 2011 international dollars)||6.6067443342485||1.8||0.2||1.6||2.5||14555|
|Labour market outcomes of emigrants in Europe and the United States||Percentages|