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Brazil

In the year 2013, Brazil received almost 128,000 permanent and temporary immigrants, the majority being of a temporary character (more than 80% of the total).

Brazil has one of the lowest permanent immigration rates in the Americas and, as well, with Colombia, Cuba and Honduras, one of the smallest immigrant populations relative to its total population size.

The United States continues to be the main destination country for emigrating Brazilians (40%), followed by Portugal, Bolivia and Canada. Brazilian emigration to Bolivia has increased almost five-fold between 2009 and 2012.

The insertion of Brazilian emigrants into the labor market in Europe and the United States took a turn for the worse from 2010 to 2013, especially for women. While the participation rate remained the same for both genders, unemployment increased by almost 3 percentage points for women but by around 1 point for men. From the onset of the financial crisis in the 2007-2008 period, to the 2012-2013 period, women’s unemployment rose from 8.5% to almost 19%, while that for men increased from 5.7% to 11.4%. 

In 2013, Brazil received 1.6 billion dollars in remittances, representing less than one tenth of one percent of Gross Domestic Product. In comparison with the year 2012, remittances decreased some 18.4%. The downward trend persists since 2010.

Brazil received nearly 5,000 asylum requests in 2013, the most significant countries of origin being Bangladesh, Senegal and Lebanon. Lebanon showed an increase of 320% relative to 2012. Today there are 5,130 refugees in Brazil, mainly of Colombian and Angolan origin, followed by Syria, Liberia, Iraq and Palestine.

The Brazilian government is undertaking a reform of its immigration Law, based on the principles established in the Constitution of 1988, and on international treaties on human rights. Recently a draft bill on Immigration and the Promotion of the Rights of Immigrants was prepared by a group of experts led by the Ministry of Justice and sent to the National Congress for consideration.  The bill provides for regularization procedures, facilitates family reunion and allows regular entry for those who seek employment. It also establishes a specialized national institution in charge of all aspects of immigration.

In 2012, and in preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, as well as the 2016 Olympic and Paralympics Games, the National Immigration Council published normative Resolution No. 98, to grant temporary work visas to foreigners for work in the country during the preparation, organization, planning and execution of the events.

Also, in 2012, through normative Resolution No. 97 of the National Immigration Council, Brazil regularized 5,651 Haitian nationals on a humanitarian basis.

Recently,  the Brazilian State has adopted provisions for extending the “Agreement on Residence for Nationals of States Party to Mercosur, Bolivia and Chile” to Peruvian and Colombian nationals residing in Brazil.

In 2013, the government signed an Agreement with Uruguay on Permanent Residence in the context of the Free Circulation of Persons. The objective is to facilitate the movement of citizens of both countries between their respective territories to ensure effective binational integration. Permanent residence or a visa may be obtained by presenting a valid passport, current identity document or a special border document issued by the consulate of the country of origin, as well as a certificate or an affidavit attesting to the absence of a criminal record.  Those requesting permanent residence will not be required to show a prior period of temporary residence. Uruguayan citizens who have obtained a permanent residence visa in Brazil or vice versa, based on this agreement, have the right to freely enter, exit, circulate and remain in the arrival country’s territory, through prior fulfilment of requirements – a valid passport and no criminal record - set in the agreement.

Recent trends in migrant’s flows and stocks and in labor market outcomes of emigrants

Brazil
Migration inflows (foreign nationals) Persons Per 1000 inhabitants Percent change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
Permanent 18021 15511 34391 24390 0.12172971486474 35.342100882304
Temporary 64534 87587 101127 103504 0.5165851745535 60.386772863917
Permanent migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Family 10387 7290 57.638310859553 29.889298892989    
Humanitarian 69 3787 0.38288663226236 15.526855268553    
International agreements 4205 6296 23.333888241496 25.813858138581    
Work 2957 4730 16.408634371012 19.393193931939    
Other 403 2287 2.2362798956773 9.3767937679377    
Total 18021 24390 100 100    
Temporary migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
International agreements 4328 32269 6.7065422877863 31.176572886072    
Study 6765 11400 10.482846251588 11.014067089195    
Work 53224 59428 82.474354603775 57.416138506724    
Other 217 407 0.33625685685065 0.39322151800897    
Total 64534 103504 100 100    
Migration outflows (nationals) Persons       % of total % change
            outflows
From unstandardised destination country data 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012/2009
All countries 136957 122540 129609 132271 100 -3.4215118613871
United States 54835 46169 51481 53157 40.187947471479 -3.0600893589861
Portugal 23138 16165 12896 11715 8.8568166869533 -49.369003371078
Bolivia 2276 2012 7459 11463 8.6662987351725 403.6467486819
Canada 5810 6160 5740 7980 6.0330684730591 37.349397590361
Asylum seekers and refugees Per million inhabitants         Number of persons
          Average 2010-2013  
  2010 2011 2012 2013   2013
Inflows of asylum seekers 5.5683622765227 25.287514212675 5.6580213660679 23.577333867201 15.022807930616 4724
Refugees resident in the country 22.319553301573 22.733373720913 23.603614044033 25.933070866633 23.647402983288 5196
Components of population growth Per 1000 inhabitants          
  1985-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2005 2005-2010  
Total 18.8 15.73 15.01 12.91 9.51  
Natural increase 18.914 15.847 15.118 13.461 10.035  
Net migration -0.114 -0.117 -0.108 -0.551 -0.525  
Foreign-born population Percentage of the total population       Persons % change
          (thousands)  
  1990 2000 2010 2013 2013 2013/2010
  0.53359562469189 0.39230761305049 0.30355388173097 0.29929738397153 599.678 -1.4022214887075
Remittances Millions of dollars       % of GDP % change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
  4044 1974 1989 1623 0.1 -59.86646884273
Macroeconomic indicators Annual growth in %       Average annual growth Level
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2010-2013 2013
Real GDP 7.5336879893753 2.7328052417387 1.0310353241727 2.4929040470175 3.4476081505761 -
GDP/per capita ((PPP ) in constant 2011 international dollars) 6.6067443342485 1.8 0.2 1.6 2.5 14555
Labour market outcomes of emigrants in Europe and the United States Percentages          
  Men   Women   Total  
  2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13
Participation rate 85.66454 85.00769 68.45348 68.02548 75.54803 74.87355
Employment rate 76.47604 75.313 57.45496 55.54776 65.29561 63.51808
Unemployment rate 10.72614 11.40449 16.06715 18.34272 13.57073 15.16619