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Canada

Canada admitted close to 259,000 new permanent residents in 2013, equivalent to about 0.7% of the resident population and close to the average since 2005. During the last decade, the role of net migration in population growth in Canada was twice as important as natural increase.

Canada sets annual targets for the total admission of permanent residents and by single categories; its overall planned admission range for 2013 was 240,000-265,000, consistent since 2006. In 2013, admissions under each class were within the planned range except for family reunification. 57% of 2013 admissions were economic immigrants (including spouses/partners and dependants), 31% were in the family reunification category, and 12% were protected persons and other immigrants. The share of family class immigrants increased by 32% from 2010 to 2013 (from 60,225 admissions to 79,685) as a result of the accelerated processing of applications, following a temporary pause in the intake of new sponsorship applications for the Parent and Grandparents Program. As a result, it exceeded the upper bound of the admissions range. Since its launch in December 2011, 20,000 multi-entry 10-year-duration “Super Visas” were delivered to parents and grandparents with an 85% approval rate as of June 2013. The number of admissions under other grounds decreased in the same period, especially the number of family members accompanying a work permit holder.

Canada admitted 24,050 persons to settle in Canada on humanitarian grounds in 2013, a figure fairly stable over in the last five years. This number might well decrease in the future as the number of new asylum requests was halved in 2013 compared to 2012 with 10,360 new requests in 2013. Also, Canada did not reach its 2012 planned range for government-assisted refugees.

China (13.1%), India (11.8%) and the Philippines (10.6%) continue to be the leading origin countries for permanent residents to Canada (2013). The Philippines (16.7%) was the leading origin for economic migrants, China (20.8%) for family migrants and Iraq (14.7%) for humanitarian migrants.

Immigrants continue to be well qualified: in 2012, 42% (68,000) of permanent resident admissions between 25 and 64 years of age had completed tertiary education.

Canada has seen significant growth in temporary migration, which is more demand-driven than permanent resident admissions. In 2013, 344,190 new temporary foreign workers, international students and humanitarian migrants were admitted, a 15% increase from 2010, with increases in both temporary foreign workers (221,310) and international students (111,900), but a strong decline in humanitarian migrants. 27,700 Seasonal Agricultural Workers came to Canada to work in 2013, with Mexico and Jamaica accounting for 68% and 26% respectively of total admissions in this category.

In the period 2009-2012, Canadian outflows to the rest of the OECD and other American countries averaged 49,000 per year. 50,800 Canadians entered another OECD country or another American country in 2012. The United States hosts the largest Canadian community abroad with nearly 800.000 persons. Canadians form the sixth largest American-born group in the United States, overtaken in 2010 by immigrants born in the Dominican Republic or in Guatemala. Three quarters of the Canadians acquiring another OECD country nationality are becoming citizens of the United States, around 9,000 every year.

The United States remains the main destination country but the number of permanent or temporary entries of Canadians in this country decreased between 2005 and 2013, from 19,100 to 17,400, a decrease mainly accountable to the drop in permanent entries that nearly halved in the same period (see Annex Table E.d.fl). The United Kingdom replaced Koreas as the second destination country. Germany attracted increasing numbers of Canadian citizens, but the numbers remain low (around 3000)

The labor market outcomes of working-age Canadians living in European OECD countries or the United States are favourable as 70% are in employment and less than 6% of those in the labor force are unemployed and looking for work. These good performances remain unchanged over  recent years.

Canada passed comprehensive legislative changes to the Citizenship Act in June 2014. In order to be more responsive to labor market demand, an Expression-of-Interest application management system designed to create a pool of skilled workers who are ready to begin employment in Canada was launched in January 2015. Such labor migration systems were already implemented successfully in New Zealand and Australia in 2003 and 2012 respectively.

The Start-up Visa Programme, launched in 2013, welcomed the first successful applicant entrepreneurs in 2014. The Federal Investor and Entrepreneur programs were terminated in June 2014.

The government undertook a review of the Parent-and-Grandparent Program in 2012 with a view to reducing application backlogs and lengthy wait times, and making the Programme more fiscally sustainable over the long term. Since the launch of the new plan, the backlog and wait times have been reduced.New sponsorship criteria (in effect from 2014) require that families have the financial means to support those they sponsor.

A comprehensive overhaul of the Temporary Foreign Worker Programme was announced in June 2014. This require using wage levels instead of the national occupational classification as the main criterion of approval, a more stringent Labor Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) process, and caps on low-wage temporary foreign workers. LMIA exemptions have been consolidated in an International Mobility Program. Both programs will have stronger employer enforcement through tougher penalties and will be financed by higher compliance fees.

Recent trends in migrant’s flows and stocks and in labor market outcomes of emigrants

Canada
Migration inflows (foreign nationals) Persons Per 1000 inhabitants Percent change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
Permanent 280690 248750 257895 258955 7.360501924523 -7.743418005629
Temporary 299275 315410 339630 344190 9.783210045767 15.007935844959
Permanent migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Accompanying family 110400.26007872 83300.774387155 39.331739669644 32.168050196812    
Family 60641.18841778 80298.353696559 21.604328055071 31.008612962313    
Humanitarian 24695.392454661 24084.964632293 8.7981019824937 9.3008301180872    
Work 76250.492657764 64383.000993803 27.16537555943 24.862621302467    
Other 8702.6663910707 6887.9062901906 3.1004547333609 2.6598854203204    
Total 280690 258955 100 100    
Temporary migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Humanitarian 24830.545504799 10844.102205722 8.2968993416755 3.1506151270292    
Study 95331.648156524 111903.7182791 31.854197028326 32.512193346437    
Work 179112.80633868 221442.17951518 59.848903629998 64.337191526534    
Total 299275 344190 100 100    
Migration outflows (nationals) Persons       % of total % change
            outflows
From unstandardised destination country data 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012/2009
All countries 44566 49717 52282 50844 100 14.086972131221
United States 19130 16176 16903 17371 34.16528990638 -9.1949817041296
United Kingdom na 6000 9000 7000 13.767602863661 na
Korea, Republic of 6490 6505 5956 6012 11.824404059476 -7.3651771956857
Germany 2653 2891 3138 3269 6.4294705373299 23.218997361478
Asylum seekers and refugees Per million inhabitants         Number of persons
          Average 2010-2013  
  2010 2011 2012 2013   2013
Inflows of asylum seekers 660.58137490476 724.4671925822 580.48719130599 294.35754447823 564.9733258178 10356
Refugees resident in the country 4851.1105901659 4780.9615415061 4700.5024229592 4557.7383062515 4722.5782152207 160349
Components of population growth Per 1000 inhabitants          
  1985-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2005 2005-2010  
Total 13.57 11.5 9.35 9.89 11.29  
Natural increase 7.023 6.59 4.273 3.348 3.746  
Net migration 6.547 4.91 5.077 6.542 7.544  
Foreign-born population Percentage of the total population       Persons % change
          (thousands)  
  1990 2000 2010 2013 2013 2013/2010
  16.261317335912 18.096042257616 20.500043368387 20.704139287853 7284.069 0.99558774485233
Remittances Millions of dollars       % of GDP % change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
  1222 1167 1206 1199 0.1 -1.8821603927987
Macroeconomic indicators Annual growth in %       Average annual growth Level
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2010-2013 2013
Real GDP 3.4 2.5 1.7 2 2.4 -
GDP/per capita ((PPP ) in constant 2011 international dollars) 2.2286387082305 1.519181725944 0.5051187164042 0.84927972479036 1.2755547188423 41899
Labour market outcomes of emigrants in Europe and the United States Percentages          
  Men   Women   Total  
  2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13
Participation rate 80.67394 81.50802 66.6204 67.43972 73.31166 74.13648
Employment rate 75.06028 77.24089 62.0646 62.99002 68.25218 69.77369
Unemployment rate 6.958452 5.235228 6.83845 6.598046 6.901324 5.884816