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Ecuador

In the period from 2011 to 2013, Ecuador received a growing number of immigrants. Relative to 2011, the number of permanent immigrants nearly quintupled while the number of temporary immigrants doubled in the same period. Temporary movements for work-related reasons were 77 percent of total temporary movements.  Family reunification was the motivation for more than 70 percent of permanent immigrants in 2013 and employment some 23 percent.

Since the 1990s, the stock of the foreign-born as a percentage of the total population has increased slowly, reaching 2.3 percent in 2013, larger than the average percentage of the foreign-born in Latin America and the Caribbean.

During the period 2009-2012, the number of Ecuadorian emigrants fell 31 percent. The United States, the principal country of destination for Ecuadorians, was the destination for 39 percent of them in 2012. Nonetheless the percentage of expatriates moving to the United States fell by some 15 points relative to 2009, while movements to the main destination countries in Europe, Spain and Italy, fell by more than half between 2009 and 2012.

Unemployment has continued to increase among Ecuadorian emigrants, particularly among women. Since 2010, it increased by 6 percentage points, while among men, the increase was less than a point. Generally unemployment for men increased substantially in the first years following the financial crisis, while for women it increased after 2010.

Throughout 2013, Ecuador received 8,280 asylum requests, mostly from Colombia, followed by Cuba and Haiti. This was 32% fewer than the previous year. For the same year, the country was home to 123,051 refugees, most of them citizens of Colombia, Cuba, Afghanistan and Peru.

The inflow of remittances was 2.45 billion dollars in 2013, a slight decrease (0.1%) from the previous year. This change reflects both the slowing down of emigration in recent years as well as the impact of the financial crisis. Although remittances continue to be second among sources of foreign exchange, contributing about 3.5 percent of GDP, the levels are far below those of 2007, when they represented around 5 percent of GDP.

On the policy side, a fundamental reform of migration legislation (which dates back to 1970) is underway since October 2013. It is known as the Law of Human Mobility project (“Ley de Movilidad Humana”). The objective is to create a legislative framework that is compatible with the 2008 constitution. The new law will ensure the regulation of the different immigration modalities of entry at the national level and combine more than a dozen regulatory bodies into a single legal body. Above all, it will give immigrants rights-based access to the different development programs in health care, education and job placement, some of which are currently restricted to nationals.

In regards to refuges, the Executive Decree 1182 of May 30, 2012, , is the new legislation that regulates asylum seeking, according to the provisions of Article 41 of the Constitution of Ecuador. It aims at responding to applications submitted in a timely manner and ensuring due process, and at identifying those manifestly unfounded, abusive and illegitimate requests.
Recently, in September 12, 2014, the Constitutional Court the deadline for seeking asylum is 3 months for the filing  and 15 days for appeals.

As with other countries of the region, the economic recession in Europe and the United States in recent years has resulted in an increase of returns of nationals living abroad to Ecuador. According to the latest Population Census of 2011, 72,000 Ecuadorians have returned to their homeland. Spanish statistics, however, show departures of almost 150 thousand Ecuadorians from 2002-2013.

The Ecuadorian State has sought to support the re-integration of returning migrants through several programs. The “Welcome Home” Plan which consists of three initiatives: 1) the “Vínculos” Programme, 2) the Incentives and Orientation Programme for migrants to generate social and productive investment and 3) the “Return Home” Programme (“Volver a Casa”).

The “Vínculos” Programme sets up virtual platforms that act as social networks for Ecuadorian emigrants, facilitating communication with their families and communities.  It also establishes Centres for Ecuadorians abroad (Casas del Ecuador) in cities that concentrate a large number of Ecuadorians. These centers offer social and cultural activities and provide information on services for migrants offered by the government both abroad and upon return.    

The Incentives and Orientation Programme for migrants is an economic program that gives small loans and technical assistance to immigrants who wish to implement social or productive investment projects.

The “Volver a Casa” Programme provides support to return migrants from more than 30 governmental institutions. Among others, these include civil registry services in destination countries prior to departure,  facilitated academic and professional certifications, access to housing credits, training for the tourism industry, craft workshops, and tax exemptions for new enterprises.

In 2011, the Parliament of the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) decided to adhere formally as a group to the Agreement on Residence for Nationals of States Party to Mercosur, plus Chile and Bolivia. Ecuador has ratified the Agreement. The beneficiaries of this visa category in Ecuador are nationals of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Through this Residency Agreement, the country grants temporary residence to citizens of these countries for 2 years, after which they may obtain the right of permanent residence.

Recent trends in migrant’s flows and stocks and in labor market outcomes of emigrants

 

Ecuador
Migration inflows (foreign nationals) Persons Per 1000 inhabitants Percent change
    2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2011
Permanent   na 3245 9217 14857 0.94402815932364 357.84283513097
Temporary   na 7909 10927 15226 0.9674747764597 92.514856492603
Permanent migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type   Persons   % distribution      
    2011 2013 2011 2013    
Family   105 10615 3.2357473035439 71.447802382715    
Work   9 3472 na 23.369455475533    
Other   3131 770 96.486902927581 5.1827421417514    
Total   3245 14857 100 100    
Temporary migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type   Persons   % distribution      
    2011 2013 2011 2013    
Study   1100 1947 13.908205841446 12.7873374491    
Work   6303 11780 79.694019471488 77.367660580586    
Other   506 1499 6.3977746870654 9.8450019703139    
Total   7909 15226 100 100    
Migration outflows (nationals)   Persons       % of total % change
              outflows
From unstandardised destination country data   2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012/2009
All countries   50064 43286 37290 34709 100 -30.670741450943
United States   15974 15503 15270 13592 39.159872079288 -14.911731563791
Spain   18212 10967 8797 7594 21.879051542828 -58.302218317593
Chile   2679 2476 2896 3417 9.8447088651358 27.547592385218
Italy   6324 6168 4164 3037 8.7498919588579 -51.976597090449
Asylum seekers and refugees*   Per million inhabitants         Number of persons
            Average 2010-2013  
    2010 2011 2012 2013   2013
Inflows of asylum seekers   148.4567695487 68.278050521953 61.837314417054 61.380574941552 84.988177357314 966
Refugees resident in the country   3420.3719752017 3516.8115186711 3550.8044531129 3549.3984640115 3509.3466027493 55860
Components of population growth   Per 1000 inhabitants          
    1985-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2005 2005-2010  
Total   24.37 22.27 20.43 18.93 17.02  
Natural increase   24.686 22.575 20.88 19.574 17.658  
Net migration   -0.316 -0.305 -0.45 -0.644 -0.638  
Foreign-born population   Percentage of the total population       Persons % change
            (thousands)  
    1990 2000 2010 2013 2013 2013/2010
    0.77702649642276 0.80867546838221 2.1709648483788 2.2831222862447 359.315 5.1662484516784
Remittances   Millions of dollars       % of GDP % change
    2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
    2324 2673 2451 2450 3.5 5.421686746988
Macroeconomic indicators   Annual growth in %       Average annual growth Level
    2010 2011 2012 2013 2010-2013 2013
Real GDP   3.5252986689403 7.86814091911 5.2203457677123 4.6415722142553 5.3138393925045 -
GDP/per capita ((PPP ) in constant 2011 international dollars)   1.8354476690945 6.113183393476 3.5197413033867 2.9722282325755 3.6101501496332 10541
Labour market outcomes of emigrants in Europe and the United States   Percentages          
    Men   Women   Total  
    2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13
Participation rate Participation rate 86.78112 82.79677 76.03918 75.98062 81.3415 79.29363
Employment rate Employment rate 66.58129 63.34208 61.72129 57.35296 64.12023 60.26399
Unemployment rate Unemployment rate 23.27675 23.49692 18.82962 24.51633 21.17156 23.99895