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El Salvador

El Salvador is among those countries whose immigration flows increased strongly in recent years. Between 2010 and 2013, the flow of permanent immigrants has increased by a factor of almost five. At the same time, it is also among one of the countries with the smallest foreign-born populations relative to its total population. A majority of the foreign-born are from neighbouring countries, and they represent less than one percentage point of the total population.

Salvadoran emigration to OECD member countries and Latin America experienced a slight decrease, of 12%, between 2009 and 2012. Salvadorans go primarily to the United States (77% in 2012). Though the number remains low, Italy has received a growing number of Salvadorans since 2009, with an increase of 50% in 2013 relative to 2009.

There has been a decrease of almost 4 percentage points in the unemployment rate of Salvadorian men abroad from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013, while for women the decline was 1.7 points. The improved economic situation in the United States, where most Salvadorian expatriates live, is responsible for these improved figures.

The number of asylum seekers in El Salvador has remained extremely low, with only 7 requests in 2013, almost all of them from Honduras. By contrast, in the same year, 11,281 Salvadorans requested asylum in different countries of the same hemisphere, mainly in the United States, followed by Mexico, Costa Rica and Canada.

In 2013, El Salvador received nearly 4 billion dollars in remittances, reflecting an increase of 0.7% in comparison to the previous year. Remittances represent more than 17% of the Gross Domestic Product. El Salvador is fourth among countries receiving remittances in Latin America.

Return migration has increased in the country in recent years. Between 2012 and 2013, 64,886 Salvadorans were repatriated by air and land, mainly from the United States and Mexico due to stronger expulsion regulations. In 2013, the number of repatriated individuals increased by some 15.6%, and by 2014, the increase was 37%.

El Salvador has implemented programs to assist in returnees’ reintegration into working life in the country as well as for medical, psychological and educational support. These programs include training and workshops in different areas such as cosmetology, styling and computing, among others.

March 2011 saw passage of the Special Law for the Protection and Development of Salvadoran Migrants and Their Families. The law created the National Council for the Protection and Development of Migrants and Their Families (known as CONMIGRANTES). The first meeting of CONMIGRANTES was held in 2012, with the participation of representatives of different State institutions, civil society organizations, universities, micro and small enterprises, and Salvadoran associations abroad. The Council is responsible for the development of the “Strategic Plan for the Protection and Development of the Migrant Individual and Family” which provides legal and financial support in the repatriation process, fosters ties between communities of origin and their diasporas to enhance their contribution to the communities’ development.

Recent trends in migrant’s flows and stocks and in labor market outcomes of emigrants

 

El Salvador
Migration inflows (foreign nationals) Persons Per 1000 inhabitants Percent change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
Permanent 321 354 634 1556 0.24540829410638 384.73520249221
Temporary 2015 1448 669 2776 0.43782353755741 37.766749379653
Permanent migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Total 321 1556 100 100    
Temporary migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Total 2015 2776 100 100    
Migration outflows (nationals) Persons       % of total % change
            outflows
From unstandardised destination country data 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012/2009
All countries 26747 26893 26405 23476 100 -12.229408905672
United States 21375 20555 20454 18111 77.146873402624 -15.270175438596
Canada 1540 1395 1185 1170 4.9838132560913 -24.025974025974
Italy 691 1535 1359 1036 4.4130175498381 49.927641099855
Spain 914 993 1155 928 3.9529732492759 1.5317286652079
Asylum seekers and refugees Per million inhabitants         Number of persons
          Average 2010-2013  
  2010 2011 2012 2013   2013
Inflows of asylum seekers 8.8452878739144 2.3976054634715 0.63518337902948 1.1040218886534 3.2455246512672 7
Refugees resident in the country 6.1112898037954 6.0739338407945 7.1458130140817 6.9395661572499 6.5676507039804 44
Components of population growth Per 1000 inhabitants          
  1985-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2005 2005-2010  
Total 13.16 14.57 7.2 3.78 4.74  
Natural increase 24.397 23.774 20.93 15.607 14.234  
Net migration -11.237 -9.204 -13.73 -11.827 -9.494  
Foreign-born population Percentage of the total population       Persons % change
          (thousands)  
  1990 2000 2010 2013 2013 2013/2010
  0.88619006756077 0.53220500658355 0.64848400540671 0.65634101280445 41.615 1.2115961738801
Remittances Millions of dollars       % of GDP % change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
  3540 3650 3911 3969 16.7 12.118644067797
Macroeconomic indicators Annual growth in %       Average annual growth Level
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2010-2013 2013
Real GDP 1.3647836672696 2.2168356104009 1.8809554606994 1.6758889935146 1.7846159329711 -
GDP/per capita ((PPP ) in constant 2011 international dollars) 0.83988359298786 1.6 1.2 1 1.1 7515
Labour market outcomes of emigrants in Europe and the United States Percentages          
  Men   Women   Total  
  2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13
Participation rate 89.58707 89.66417 70.89365 70.89964 80.59027 80.68691
Employment rate 80.63595 84.21494 62.47136 63.64957 71.89366 74.37613
Unemployment rate 9.991538 6.077375 11.88018 10.22583 10.79114 7.82132