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Mexico

Though Mexico continues to be characterized by high levels of emigration and in the last two decades has been more and more a transit country for migrants travelling to the United States, immigration has increased significantly in recent years. In 2013, Mexico saw more than 60,700 permanent immigrants enter the country, almost three times the average of the three previous years. Although temporary migration has decreased, particularly in comparison to 2012, total immigrants to the country in 2013 were some 65% higher than the previous year.

The foreign-born population has grown somewhat in recent years but continued to be less than one percent of the total population in 2013.

Regular migration of Mexicans to the United States has continued to increase and in 2013 was 13% greater than in 2010. At the same time, estimates of irregular immigration show important decreases in the number of Mexicans entering the United States since the economic crisis, with a decline of approximately one million in total between 2007 and 2012, according to estimates from the Pew Hispanic Centre.

The recovery of the U.S. economy is undoubtedly related to the positive results of the labor market outcomes for Mexican migrants observed in OECD countries in general, considering that more than 85 percent of Mexican emigrants reside in the United States. The unemployment rate for Mexican workers in the United States and Europe declined around two percentage points from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013, with falls recorded for both men and women.

Between 2012 and 2013, Mexico saw an increase of 60% in the number of asylum requests, with 1,296 requests recorded in 2013. Most petitioners were from Honduras, El Salvador and Cuba. In the same year, 1,779 refugees lived in Mexico, most of them of Salvadoran, Guatemalan and Honduran origin.

Mexico continues to be the largest recipient of remittances in all of Latin America, in absolute terms, with 21.6 billion dollars being remitted in 2013 (approximately 2% of Gross Domestic Product), almost all from the United States. Nevertheless, the amount of remittances actually declined relative to 2012, by about -3.8%.

The current government administration’s 2013-2018 National Development Plan includes a Special Migration Program 2014-2018. The program’s state aim is to promote an integral, inter-sectorial, participative immigration policy based on promoting human rights, sustainable development, gender, interculturality and human security.

From 2008 to 2013, more than 16,000 Mexicans have left Spain and returned to Mexico, according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Between 2010 and 2013, more than 1.5 million Mexican migrants have been repatriated by U.S. authorities, according to Mexican government figures. Since 2014, the government, through the National Migration Institute, has implemented the “We Are Mexican” initiative (“Somos Mexicanos”), which widens the reach of the Human Repatriation Programme, implemented since 2007. The program seeks to serve the immediate needs of repatriated nationals, providing them with information, orientation, food, shelter, medical  assistance, telephone calls to relatives, relocation and ease of return to their communities of origin as well as employment and social integration.

Further, the Paisano Program, established in 1989, is a program that supports Mexican migrants that temporary visit the country in relation to address the information needs during their entry into, transfer through or exit from Mexico. Paisano facilitates administrative migratory process and customs regulations, importation of vehicles, health and sanitary regulations in addition to aid with the functions of consulates abroad through information to obtain, renew and apostille documents.

Beginning in 2014, the government of Mexico launched the Southern Border Programme (“Frontera Sur”), which seeks to deliver Border Worker and Regional Visitor cards to citizens of Guatemala and Belize with the objective of regularizing border crossings into the country. In addition to interinstitutional actions for the protection of migrants, it also seeks to combat organized crime, social crime prevention and access to public and social services.

In November 2012, in the framework of the Pacific Alliance, Mexico announced the abolition of visas previously necessary for Colombian and Peruvian nationals to enter its territory. Under this new regulation, Colombians and Peruvians may enter and stay in Mexico for up to six months without visas, provided that the activities they conduct are non-remunerative, such as tourism, transit or business.

From May 2013, citizens of Brazil visiting the country for the same purposes (tourism, transit or business) are also exempt from any visa requirement.

Recent trends in migrant’s flows and stocks and in labor market outcomes of emigrants

 

Mexico
Migration inflows (foreign nationals) Persons Per 1000 inhabitants Percent change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
Permanent 26180 21464 18153 60709 0.45504707219876 131.89075630252
Temporary 38890 41052 39367 33865 0.26886581370811 -12.921059398303
Permanent migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Family 8937 21676 34.136745607334 35.704755472829    
Humanitarian 0 214 0 0.35250127658173    
Work 8544 20411 32.635599694423 33.621044655652    
Other 8699 18408 33.227654698243 30.321698594936    
Total 26180 60709 100 100    
Temporary migration inflows (foreign nationals) by type Persons   % distribution      
  2010 2013 2010 2013    
Family 5314 7641 13.664181023399 22.563118263694    
Humanitarian 1076 277 2.7667780920545 0.81795363945076    
Study 4653 7540 11.964515299563 22.264875239923    
Work 16261 13331 41.812805348419 39.365126236527    
Other 11586 5076 29.791720236565 14.988926620405    
Total 38890 33865 100 100    
Migration outflows (nationals) Persons       % of total % change
            outflows
From unstandardised destination country data 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012/2009
All countries 339067 309807 325576 350867 100 3.4801381437887
United States 291121 266502 280053 301555 85.945671721764 3.5840767241113
Canada 32054 26130 26840 29060 8.2823406019945 -9.3404879266238
Spain 4869 4789 4998 4676 1.3326987148977 -3.9638529472171
Germany 2777 3008 3495 3485 0.99325385402446 25.495138638819
Asylum seekers and refugees Per million inhabitants         Number of persons
          Average 2010-2013  
  2010 2011 2012 2013   2013
Inflows of asylum seekers 8.8135995792545 6.3085809443674 6.7109386156237 10.594086363008 8.1068013755635 1296
Refugees resident in the country 11.833466230087 14.049787840245 12.577838095867 14.967416767491 13.357127233422 1831
Components of population growth Per 1000 inhabitants          
  1985-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2005 2005-2010  
Total 20.07 20.55 17.03 12.79 12.52  
Natural increase 23.412 22.29 20.716 18.243 16.107  
Net migration -3.342 -1.74 -3.686 -5.453 -3.587  
Foreign-born population Percentage of the total population       Persons % change
          (thousands)  
  1990 2000 2010 2013 2013 2013/2010
  0.8144893147071 0.50130636168242 0.81647753035202 0.90201778843559 1103.46 10.476743682915
Remittances Millions of dollars       % of GDP % change
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013/2010
  21271 22731 22446 21583 2 1.4667857646561
Macroeconomic indicators Annual growth in %       Average annual growth Level
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2010-2013 2013
Real GDP 5.1 4 4.0280782034896 1.1 3.6469919860398 -
GDP/per capita ((PPP ) in constant 2011 international dollars) 3.8 2.8 2.7 -0.2 2.3 9649.4450065739
Labour market outcomes of emigrants in Europe and the United States Percentages          
  Men   Women   Total  
  2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13 2010-11 2012-13
Participation rate 87.03143 87.14803 56.24591 56.64005 72.86755 72.95952
Employment rate 79.17629 81.27863 48.52972 49.90401 65.07634 66.68706
Unemployment rate 9.025631 6.734983 13.71866 11.89272 10.69229 8.597174